Fatwa: # 45373
Category: Jurisprudence and Rulings...
Country:
Date: 30th August 2020

Title

False promises and fraud

Question

If someone offers a job after agreeing to pay as per my current position, profile and existing salary package. He did false promise to me saying that if I work with him there will lot of progress and sucess. I trusted him and resigned my existing job and relocated to another city after selling my asset like car etc. Later this person cheated me and gave me very very less amount as compared to our verbal agreement. 

I lost my asset, my job, my career etc. Now I am jobless and from last three years. According to me he is a liar and fraud person.

I hold him responsible for all the financial, emotional and physical loss which I have faced till date.

Also, I declare him as my debtor for all my financial losses which has incurred due to this person's fraud with me.

 

Please let me know if I am right on my part to declare such a person as my debtor and he should repay me all the financial losses which I have faced. 

Else, I am not going to forgive him and hold him on the day of judgement.

Jazakallah hu khair

 

 

 

 

 

 

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

At the outset, Shariah advises us to guard ourselves against harm and losses. Allah Taa’la says:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ خُذُواْ حِذْرَكُمْ فَانفِرُواْ ثُبَاتٍ أَوِ انفِرُواْ جَمِيعاً)4\71)

Translation:O you who believe! Take your precautions….(Surah Nisaa:71) 

Shariah has also emphasized that we avoid disputes in our dealings and anything that may lead to disputes. Allah Taa’la says:


وَأَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَلَا تَنَازَعُوا فَتَفْشَلُوا وَتَذْهَبَ رِيحُكُمْ ۖ وَاصْبِرُوا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الصَّابِرِينَ)8\46)

Translation:  "And obey Allah and His Messenger, and do not dispute and [thus] lose courage and [then] your strength would depart; and be patient. Indeed, Allah is with the patient." (Surah Al Anfal: 46)

Shariah also advises to record our dealings and agreements. Allah Taa’la says:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا تَدَايَنْتُمْ بِدَيْنٍ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى فَاكْتُبُوهُ (البقرة/ 282)

Translation: “O you who believe! When you deal with each other in transactions involving future obligations, till a fixed term, set it down in writing

وَلَا تَسْأَمُوا أَنْ تَكْتُبُوهُ صَغِيرًا أَوْ كَبِيرًا إِلَىٰ أَجَلِهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ أَقْسَطُ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَأَقْوَمُ لِلشَّهَادَةِ وَأَدْنَىٰ أَلَّا تَرْتَابُوا ۖ إِلَّا أَنْ تَكُونَ تِجَارَةً حَاضِرَةً تُدِيرُونَهَا بَيْنَكُمْ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَلَّا تَكْتُبُوهَا ۗ وَأَشْهِدُوا إِذَا تَبَايَعْتُمْ (البقرة/ 282)

Translation: “And do not be reluctant on writing down contracts, regardless of how big or insignificant you may feel the contract to be. Putting your contracts down in writing, is a more just method in the sight of Allah Ta’ala, and it is more suitable for establishing evidence and removing doubts. However, if you conduct an immediate transaction among yourselves, then there is no need for you to record it, but still, it is advised to call upon witnesses when a deal is finalized”

This was also the Sunnah of Nabi (Sallallahu Alahi Wasallam). See the following narration:

عَنِ العَدَّاءِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ، قَالَ: كَتَبَ لِي النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «هَذَا مَا اشْتَرَى مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، مِنَ العَدَّاءِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ…(صحيح البخاري: 3/ 58)

Translation: Adda Ibn Khalid(Radiyallahu anhu) says: “Nabi (Sallallahu Alahi Wasallam) wrote: this is what Muhammed the messenger of Allah  (Sallallahu Alahi Wasallam) bought from Adda Ibn Khalid”(Bukhari:58/3)

If what you state reflects the reality of the situation, then our observation is you did not take precaution by specifying the terms and conditions of the contract and recording the agreement.

If you had specified the terms and conditions of the agreement and recorded, then you would have some recourse. At this stage, the person could dismiss the allegations as your version being against his. This should serve as a lesson for you in your future dealings.

If the person in reference did not honour his commitment to you, and you suffered financial losses due to him, then he will be responsible in the court of Allah Taa’la.

However, from a Fiqh (Jurisprudential) point of view, there was no bonofide (genuine) contract between both of you that leads him to be your debtor.

The loss you referred to will be regarded as loss based on trust, and not based on any contract.

You risked trusting the person and understandably you will have to bear the burden for risking the trust of the person.

Our advice is you turn to Allah Taa’la and adopt a means for your income. Be positive and work hard. Allah Taa’la will put Barakah in your efforts.

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Ahmad Patel

Student Darul Iftaa

South Africa

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

 

DISCLAIMER - AskImam.org questions
AskImam.org answers issues pertaining to Shar'ah. Thereafter, these questions and answers are placed for public view on www.askimam.org for educational purposes. However, many of these answers are unique to a particular scenario and cannot be taken as a basis to establish a ruling in another situation or another environment. Askimam.org bears no responsibility with regards to these questions being used out of their intended context.
  • The Shar's ruling herein given is based specifically on the question posed and should be read in conjunction with the question.
  • AskImam.org bears no responsibility to any party who may or may not act on this answer and is being hereby exempted from loss or damage howsoever caused.
  • This answer may not be used as evidence in any Court of Law without prior written consent of AskImam.org.
  • Any or all links provided in our emails, answers and articles are restricted to the specific material being cited. Such referencing should not be taken as an endorsement of other contents of that website.
The Messenger of Allah said, "When Allah wishes good for someone, He bestows upon him the understanding of Deen."
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim]