Fatwa: # 43782
Category: Beliefs and Practices (Aq...
Country: African Country
Date: 24th November 2019

Title

Is Muda’rat is a Sunni doctrine of deception and another name for 'Taqiyya'?

Question

Salam

 

Is this true?

 

Muda’rat is a Sunni doctrine of deception. It is another name for Takiyya.Muda’rat means flattery, adulation, conformity with deciet, trickery, keeping pace with, wrap, conceal or hide. This deceptive behaviour can be practiced with anybody when necessary. Sunni scholars have identified ten categories of people who are to be regularly targeted by Muda’rat:

 

1. Kaffir [non-Muslim].

 

2. A tyrannical ruler.

 

3. Those hose hearts have been recently reconciled to Islam. [converts/reverts].

 

4. One who has deviated from the truth of Islam to win him back.

 

5. A Muslim who has gone astray in imitating the non-believers.

 

6. A learned scholar or scientist to benfit from his knowledge.

 

7. A friend.

 

8. One’s enemies.

 

9. One’s spouse.

 

10. A person who may be ill [by giving them hope that he will be well and looks well].

 

Jzk

 

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

Respected Brother.

The explanation of Muda’rat given in your query is an extract from the book ‘Modern Day Trojan Horse: The Islamic Doctrine of Immigration’. The author Sam Solomon who commonly partners with E. Al Maqdisi, is deemed be a former Islamic scholar who turned to Christianity. It is clearly understood from their writings that their intentions are to defame Islam and to further assist the west in their efforts against Islam. The name ‘Trojan Horse’ implies misleading one from the true intent as they make every effort in this regard leading them to self-conclude on the different rulings and commands of Islam and the reasonings behind these commands. This is their intentions and efforts in many of their works.

Islam propagates truth and noble character in one’s speech, actions and dealings. Lying and deception are against the teachings of Islam and one will be taken to task for such actions.

‘Muda’rat’ is wrongly expressed as deception. The linguistic meaning as expressed by linguistics is: to be courteous, polite, pleasant, friendly etc1.

‘Muda’rat’ is encouraged with one’s spouse, children and fellow humans, muslim or non-muslim. It is common knowledge that not every relationship is based on love and affection. A relationship of intense love and affection is called ‘Muwa’lat’. At times, a relationship of love and affection may suffer setbacks but the advice of ‘Muda’rat’ will still apply. From this, one can understand that it is a general teaching of Islam and is just a term for the different levels of interactions and relationships one has with others. In simple terms, it is advice to take the extra step in winning over the heart of a person.

The categories of people to be targeted with ‘Muda’rat’ as expressed in the question, are misunderstood to mean that one may deceive such people. Hence, it cannot be referred to as the Sunni doctrine of deception and another name for taqiyyah. Deception has no basis in Islam.

Islam impresses upon one to adopt sublime character and morals which clearly excludes lies and deception, but at the same time, Islam accommodates for dire situations and necessity. Hence, Islam gives concession, especially in certain social cases to avoid disputes and for the sake of reconciliation. This may be to win over a person, to avoid conflicts and disputes, for reconciliation purposes or to save one’s self from oppression and harm. Islam gives such great importance to the subject of lying that in such a condition, when it is really necessary for one to lie, Islam advises one to act on the concept of ‘Tauriya’ (concealment of truth without speaking a lie) instead of speaking a blatant lie2.

‘Tauriya’ means that when circumstances demand, instead of lying, we say a sentence which can be interpreted in different ways. The listener interprets it in one way, whilst the aim of the speaker is something else.

The term ‘Taqiyya’ as practised by the Shias in concealing their belief has no basis and application to ‘Muda’rat’. You may refer to the following link for an article on ‘Taqiyya’:

http://askimam.org/public/question_detail/28898

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Abdullah Noorgat

Student Darul Ifta

South Africa

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.


1)      وَ (مُدَارَاةُ) النَّاسِ يُهْمَزُ وَيُلَيَّنُ وَهِيَ الْمُدَاجَاةُ وَالْمُلَايَنَةُ. ( مختار الصحاح (ص: 104)

 

وأَما المُدارأَة فِي حُسْنِ الخُلُق والمُعاشَرة فَإِنَّ ابْنَ الأَحمر يَقُولُ فِيهِ: إِنَّهُ يُهْمَزُ وَلَا يُهْمَزُ. يُقَالُ: دَارَأْتُه مدارأَةً ودارَيْتُه إِذَا اتَّقيتَه ولايَنْتَه (لسان العرب (1/ 71)

 

وأما المداراة فهي بذل الدنيا ومنه حسن المعاشرة والرفق لإصلاح الدين أو الدنيا أو هما معا وهي مباحة وربما استحبت اهـ. حاشية الطحطاوي على مراقي الفلاح شرح نور الإيضاح (ص: 84)

 

 

وَالْفرق بَين المدارة وَالْمُدَاهَنَةِ أَنَّ الْمُدَارَاةَ بَذْلُ الدُّنْيَا لِصَلَاحِ الدُّنْيَا أَوِ الدِّينِ أَوْ هُمَا مَعًا وَهِيَ مُبَاحَةٌ وَرُبَّمَا اسْتُحِبَّتْ وَالْمُدَاهَنَةُ تَرْكُ الدِّينِ لِصَلَاحِ الدُّنْيَا (فتح الباري لابن حجر (10/ 454)

 

 

قَالَ بن بَطَّالٍ الْمُدَارَاةُ مِنْ أَخْلَاقِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَهِيَ خَفْضُ الْجَنَاحِ لِلنَّاسِ وَلِينُ الْكَلِمَةِ وَتَرْكُ الْإِغْلَاظِ لَهُمْ فِي الْقَوْلِ وَذَلِكَ مِنْ أَقْوَى أَسْبَابِ الْأُلْفَةِ وَظَنَّ بَعْضُهُمْ أَنَّ الْمُدَارَاةَ هِيَ الْمُدَاهَنَةُ فَغَلَطَ لِأَن المداراة مَنْدُوبٌ إِلَيْهَا وَالْمُدَاهَنَةُ مُحَرَّمَةٌ وَالْفَرْقُ أَنَّ الْمُدَاهَنَةَ مِنَ الدِّهَانِ وَهُوَ الَّذِي يَظْهَرُ عَلَى الشَّيْءِ وَيسْتر بَاطِنه وفسرها الْعلمَاء بِأَنَّهَا مُعَاشَرَةُ الْفَاسِقِ وَإِظْهَارُ الرِّضَا بِمَا هُوَ فِيهِ مِنْ غَيْرِ إِنْكَارٍ عَلَيْهِ وَالْمُدَارَاةُ هِيَ الرِّفْقُ بِالْجَاهِلِ فِي التَّعْلِيمِ وَبِالْفَاسِقِ فِي النَّهْيِ عَنْ فِعْلِهِ وَتَرْكُ الْإِغْلَاظِ عَلَيْهِ حَيْثُ لَا يَظْهَرُ مَا هُوَ فِيهِ وَالْإِنْكَارُ عَلَيْهِ بِلُطْفِ الْقَوْلِ وَالْفِعْلِ وَلَا سِيَّمَا إِذَا احْتِيجَ إِلَى تألفه وَنَحْو ذَلِك فتح الباري لابن حجر (10/ 528)

 

2)      وَمِنْهُ مَا يُوجِبُ الْإِثْمَ كَالْكَذِبِ وَالنَّمِيمَةِ وَالْغِيبَةِ وَالشَّتِيمَةِ، ثُمَّ الْكَذِبُ مَحْظُورٌ إِلَّا فِي الْقِتَالِ لِلْخُدْعَةِ، وَفِي الصُّلْحِ بَيْنَ اثْنَيْنِ، وَفِي إِرْضَاءِ الرَّجُلِ الْأَهْلَ، وَفِي دَفْعِ الظَّالِمِ عَنِ الظُّلْمِ وَيُكْرَهُ التَّعْرِيضُ بِالْكَذِبِ إِلَّا لِحَاجَةٍ؛ كَقَوْلِكَ لِرَجُلٍ كُلْ، فَيَقُولُ: أَكَلْتُ يَعْنِي أَمْسَ فَلَا بَأْسَ بِهِ لِأَنَّهُ صَادِقٌ فِي قَصْدِهِ. وَقِيلَ يُكْرَهُ لِأَنَّهُ كَذِبٌ فِي الظَّاهِرِ. (الاختيار لتعليل المختار 4/180)

 

 (وَالْكَذِبُ حَرَامٌ إلَّا فِي الْحَرْبِ لِلْخُدْعَةِ وَفِي الصُّلْحِ بَيْنَ اثْنَيْنِ وَفِي إرْضَاءِ الْأَهْلِ وَفِي دَفْعِ الظَّالِمِ عَنْ الظُّلْمِ) لِأَنَّا أُمِرْنَا بِهَذَا فَلَا يُبَالِي فِيهِ الْكَذِبَ إذَا كَانَتْ نِيَّتُهُ خَالِصَةً (وَيُكْرَهُ التَّعْرِيضُ بِهِ) أَيْ بِالْكَذِبِ (إلَّا لِحَاجَةٍ) كَقَوْلِك لِرَجُلٍ كُلْ فَيَقُولُ أَكَلْت يَعْنِي أَمْسِ فَلَا بَأْسَ بِهِ لِأَنَّهُ صَادِقٌ فِي قَصْدِهِ وَقِيلَ يُكْرَهُ لِأَنَّهُ كَذِبٌ فِي الظَّاهِرِ. (مجمع الأنهر في شرح ملتقى الأبحر (2/ 552)

 

 

 

 

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