Fatwa: # 42773
Category: Business Matters
Country:
Date: 17th July 2019

Title

Riba in Dar al-Harb

Question

Al Salamu Alaykum Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuhu. As I have read somewhere, Imam Abu Hanfiah (rahimahu Allah) sees that dealing with interest or such contracts (العقود الفاسدة) in non muslim countries, aka Darul Harb (دار الحرب) is allowed. I have read many articles and fatawas regarding this issue. For that I’m not a Scholar, I can’t weigh the both sides and know the right path. There are turkish restaurants that offer halal food, but also sell alcohol. I think the reason may be that some Scholars told them that’s halal. Also, there are a number of muslims around the world (like in USA or Canada, or in EU), who get house mortgages with interest, saying that Scholars said it’s halal. I know how awful interest (Riba) is and what Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala told us about it in Quran and what the Prophet peace be upon him told us in hadiths. Yet Imam Abu Hanifah for me is one of the greatest Scholars in the Umma. Even Imam Shafi’i, Malek and Ibn Hanbal (rahimahumu Allah) acknowledged his knowledge. As a business student, I have a desire to start my own business 1-2 years after graduation. All business loans involve interest. So I don’t know if it’s halal to take such loans. I thought to myself, that if it was haram, I can try to work hard and save money until I can have enought money that would help establish a small business interest free. This would take the same period of 1-2 years aftergraduation, but my starting capital would only be savings without the added capital from the interest loan. I thought also about getting financed through friends and relatives, but this is a little bit hard, for that they mostly won’t trust me with their money, since this would be my first business. Since I expect the best Hanafi fiqh based instruction from your side and highly trust you, I await the answer to this question from you, that InshaAllah would please my lord, if I followed your instructions. Thank you so much and jazakom Allahu khayran. Best regards, Mohammad

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

 

Respected Brother in Islam.

In order to understand the issue of interest in Dar Al-Harb, it is important to understand the following.

USA, Canada and EU are democratic countries where freedom of religion is an entrenched clause in the constitution. Muslims enjoy freedom of religion and can take up religious issues with their governments. Accordingly, these countries are not Dar al-Harb. [1]

According to Imam Abu Hanifa Rahmatullahi Alaihi, it is permissible to take interest in Dar al-Harb.[2] Giving interest will be haram just like in Dar al-Islam.[3] Even according to Imam Abu Hanifa Rahmatullahi Alaihi, paying interest will be prohibited.

The issue in reference is about taking a loan and giving interest, not taking interest.

It is clear from the above two points, that the Turkish restaurant selling alcohol and the ruling on mortgages by some people ulama is non-analogous and incorrect. Interest is expressly prohibited in the Quran and Ahadith.

Please consider the following ayah and hadith.

فَإِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلُوا فَأْذَنُوا بِحَرْبٍ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَإِنْ تُبْتُمْ فَلَكُمْ رُءُوسُ أَمْوَالِكُمْ لَا تَظْلِمُونَ وَلَا تُظْلَمُونَ

If you do not (avoid interest), then be warned of war from Allah and his messenger salallahu alaihi wa sallam. If you repent, then you may have your principal amount (the amount you lent). Oppress not and you shall not be oppressed.[4]

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الصَّبَّاحِ، وَزُهَيْرُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ، وَعُثْمَانُ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، قَالُوا: حَدَّثَنَا هُشَيْمٌ، أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو الزُّبَيْرِ، عَنْ جَابِرٍ، قَالَ: «لَعَنَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ آكِلَ الرِّبَا، وَمُؤْكِلَهُ، وَكَاتِبَهُ، وَشَاهِدَيْهِ»، وَقَالَ: «هُمْ سَوَاءٌ»

Jabir radiallahu anhu narrates that the Prophet salallahu alaihi wa sallam cursed the one who takes interest, the one who gives, the one who records it and the two persons who stand witness to it, and then the Messenger salallahu alahi wa sallam added “they are all equal”(equally sinful).[5]

Our advice is that you work hard and save your money and commence business with halal money. There will be barakah in this. Interest is haram and void of barakah. While you may think that interest is the solution to your financial difficulty, you may end up in a long-term problem of paying back interest and deprive yourself of the barakah of halal earnings.

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Muhammed Shafi.

Student - Darul Iftaa

(London, U.K.)

Checked and Approved by,

Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

00-11-1440| 00-07-2019

 

 


 (7/130) [1] وَاخْتَلَفُوا فِي دَارِ الْإِسْلَامِ، إنَّهَا بِمَاذَا تَصِيرُ دَارَ الْكُفْرِ؟ قَالَ أَبُو حَنِيفَةَ: إنَّهَا لَا تَصِيرُ دَارَ الْكُفْرِ إلَّا بِثَلَاثِ شَرَائِطَ، أَحَدُهَا: ظُهُورُ أَحْكَامِ الْكُفْرِ فِيهَا وَالثَّانِي: أَنْ تَكُونَ مُتَاخِمَةً لِدَارِ الْكُفْرِ وَالثَّالِثُ: أَنْ لَا يَبْقَى فِيهَا مُسْلِمٌ وَلَا ذِمِّيٌّ آمِنًا بِالْأَمَانِ الْأَوَّلِ، وَهُوَ أَمَانُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ. وَقَالَ أَبُو يُوسُفَ وَمُحَمَّدٌ - رَحِمَهُمَا اللَّهُ: إنَّهَا تَصِيرُ دَارَ الْكُفْرِ بِظُهُورِ أَحْكَامِ الْكُفْرِ فِيهَا.

 وَجْهُ قَوْلِ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ - رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ - أَنَّ الْمَقْصُودَ مِنْ إضَافَةِ الدَّارِ إلَى الْإِسْلَامِ وَالْكُفْرِ لَيْسَ هُوَ عَيْنَ الْإِسْلَامِ وَالْكُفْرِ، وَإِنَّمَا الْمَقْصُودُ هُوَ الْأَمْنُ وَالْخَوْفُ.

وَمَعْنَاهُ أَنَّ الْأَمَانَ إنْ كَانَ لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ فِيهَا عَلَى الْإِطْلَاقِ، وَالْخَوْفُ لِلْكَفَرَةِ عَلَى الْإِطْلَاقِ، فَهِيَ دَارُ الْإِسْلَامِ، وَإِنْ كَانَ الْأَمَانُ فِيهَا لِلْكَفَرَةِ عَلَى الْإِطْلَاقِ، وَالْخَوْفُ لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ عَلَى الْإِطْلَاقِ، فَهِيَ دَارُ الْكُفْرِ وَالْأَحْكَامُ مَبْنِيَّةٌ عَلَى الْأَمَانِ وَالْخَوْفِ لَا عَلَى الْإِسْلَامِ وَالْكُفْرِ، فَكَانَ اعْتِبَارُ الْأَمَانِ وَالْخَوْفِ أَوْلَى، (بدائع الصنائع (7/130)) ه

[2] وقال أبو حنيفة: إذا دخل المسلم دار الحرب بأمان فلا بأس بأن يبيعهم درهماً بدرهمين وأكثر من ذلك. وكذلك الدنانير. فإنه لا بأس بأن يأخذ أموالهم بطِيبَة أنفسهم على أي وجهٍ ما كان، وأن يبيعهم خمراً أو خنزيراً أو ميتةً أو غير ذلك مما لا يجوز، فلا بأس به. وإن كان ذلك نسيئةً أو نقداً فلا بأس بذلك. وإن أعطاك أحدهم عشرة دراهم بدينار نسيئة فلا بأس وإن أعطاك درهمين بدرهم نسيئة فلا بأس به. وكذلك إذا دخل عليهم بغير أمان. والعبد التاجر والذمي في هذه الحالة بمنزلة الحر المسلم. وكذلك المرأة من المسلمين. وكذلك الأسير في أيدي أهل الحرب من المسلمين فهو كذلك. وكذلك كيل الحنطة لا بأس بأن يعطي قفيزاً واحداً ويأخذ خمسة يداً بيد ونسيئة. وكذلك الشعير. وكل ما يوزن من النحاس والحديد والأدهان وغيره لا بأس بأن يشتري منهم اثنين بواحد من نوعه يداً بيد ونسيئة. وكذلك لو اشتريتَ بنوع من ذلك نوعاً غيره نسيئةً أو يداً بيد. (الأصل للشيباني ط قطر (3/ 71) باب الصرف في دار الحرب) ه

ولا ربا بين المولى وعبده ولا بين المسلم والحربي في دار الحرب. (مختصر القدوري ص 87 باب الربا) ه

ه

اذا دَخَلَ مُسْلِمٌ أَوْ ذِمِّيٌّ دَارَ الْحَرْبِ بِأَمَانٍ أَوْ بِغَيْرِهِ وَعَقَدَ مَعَ الْحَرْبِيِّ عَقْدَ الرِّبَا بِأَنْ اشْتَرَى دِرْهَمًا بِدِرْهَمَيْنِ أَوْ دِرْهَمًا بِدِينَارٍ إلَى أَجَلٍ مَعْلُومٍ أَوْ بَاعَ مِنْهُمْ خَمْرًا أَوْ خِنْزِيرًا أَوْ مَيْتَةً أَوْ دَمًا بِمَالٍ فَذَلِكَ كُلُّهُ جَائِزٌ عِنْدَ الطَّرَفَيْنِ وَقَالَ الْقَاضِي لَا يَجُوزُ بَيْنَ الْمُسْلِمِ، وَالْحَرْبِيِّ ثَمَّةَ إلَّا مَا يَجُوزُ بَيْنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ كَذَا فِي جَوَاهِرِ الْأَخْلَاطِيِّ، وَالصَّحِيحُ قَوْلُهُمَا وَرَأَيْت فِي بَعْضِ الْكُتُبِ أَنَّ هَذَا الِاخْتِلَافَ فِيمَا إذَا اشْتَرَى مِنْهُمْ دِرْهَمَيْنِ بِدِرْهَمٍ أَمَّا إذَا اشْتَرَى مِنْهُمْ دِرْهَمًا بِدِرْهَمَيْنِ فَلَا يَجُوزُ بِالِاتِّفَاقِ كَذَا فِي الْمُحِيطِ، وَإِنْ دَخَلَ حَرْبِيٌّ إلَيْنَا بِأَمَانٍ فَبَاعَهُ مُسْلِمٌ عَلَى هَذَا الْوَجْهِ لَمْ يَجُزْ كَذَا فِي مُحِيطِ السَّرَخْسِيِّ.(الفتاوى الهندية (3/ 248) [الْفَصْلُ السَّادِسُ فِي الصَّرْفِ فِي دَارِ الْحَرْبِ]) ه

[3] وَرَأَيْت فِي بَعْضِ الْكُتُبِ أَنَّ هَذَا الِاخْتِلَافَ فِيمَا إذَا اشْتَرَى مِنْهُمْ دِرْهَمَيْنِ بِدِرْهَمٍ أَمَّا إذَا اشْتَرَى مِنْهُمْ دِرْهَمًا بِدِرْهَمَيْنِ فَلَا يَجُوزُ بِالِاتِّفَاقِ كَذَا فِي الْمُحِيطِ

[4] سورة البقرة/279

[5] صحيح مسلم ح1589

DISCLAIMER - AskImam.org questions
AskImam.org answers issues pertaining to Shar'ah. Thereafter, these questions and answers are placed for public view on www.askimam.org for educational purposes. However, many of these answers are unique to a particular scenario and cannot be taken as a basis to establish a ruling in another situation or another environment. Askimam.org bears no responsibility with regards to these questions being used out of their intended context.
  • The Shar's ruling herein given is based specifically on the question posed and should be read in conjunction with the question.
  • AskImam.org bears no responsibility to any party who may or may not act on this answer and is being hereby exempted from loss or damage howsoever caused.
  • This answer may not be used as evidence in any Court of Law without prior written consent of AskImam.org.
  • Any or all links provided in our emails, answers and articles are restricted to the specific material being cited. Such referencing should not be taken as an endorsement of other contents of that website.
The Messenger of Allah said, "When Allah wishes good for someone, He bestows upon him the understanding of Deen."
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim]