Fatwa: # 41598
Category: Prayer (Salaat)
Country: India
Date: 6th August 2019

Title

Qadha Umri

Question

Assalam alaykum. My question is why is it obligatory to pray qadha umri if someone had missed salah since a long time? Many scholars say that salah which are missed intentionally by the person does not have qadha stating that the person missed it by neglecting intentionally and not due to a valid shariah excuse. So they say repentance to Allah(SAW)will be enough. And we all know Allah is most forgiving and most merciful to those who repent then why should someone make up missed prayer instead of asking repentance directly to Allah (SAW)? It's important your reply will be appreciated.

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

Salah is one of the fundamentals of Islam. This is understood from the following Hadith:

وعن ابن عمر رضي الله عنهما، أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال‏:‏ ‏ "‏بني الإسلام على خمس‏:‏ شهادة أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدًا عبده ورسوله، إقام الصلاة، وإيتاء الزكاة، وحج البيت، وصوم رمضان‏"‏ (صحيح البخاري حديث رقم 8)

Translation: Ibn 'Umar (Radhiallahu'anhuma) reported: The Messenger of Allah () said, "(The structure of) Islam is built on five (pillars): Testification of 'La ilaha illallah' (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah), that Muhammad () is his slave and Messenger, the establishment of Salat, the payment of Zakat, the pilgrimage to the House of Allah (Ka'bah), and Saum during the month of Ramadan."[Al-Bukhari Hadith No. 8].

Salah is compulsory on every Muslim. If one misses Salah, it must be made up (Qadhaa). This is proven from the following Hadith:

عن جابر بن عبد الله، أن عمر بن الخطاب، جاء يوم الخندق، بعد ما غربت الشمس فجعل يسب كفار قريش، قال: يا رسول الله ما كدت أصلي العصر، حتى كادت الشمس تغرب، قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: «والله ما صليتها» فقمنا إلى بطحان، فتوضأ للصلاة وتوضأنا لها، فصلى العصر بعد ما غربت الشمس، ثم صلى بعدها المغرب (صحيح البخاري حديث رقم 596)

Translation: Sayidinna Jabir bin Abdullah (Radhiallahu'anhu) narrated that on the day of Al-Khandaq (the battle of the trench) Umar bin Al-Khattab (Radhiallahu'anhu) came cursing the disbelievers of the Quraish after the sun set and said, “O Messenger of Allah()  I could not offer the Asr prayer till the sun had set” The Prophet() said, “By Allah! I too have not prayed.” So we turned towards Buthan, and the Prophet()  performed ablution and offered the Asr prayer after the sun had set, and then offered the Maghrib prayer. (Sahih Bukhari, Hadith No.596)

Furthermore, it is compulsory to make up for missed Salah, irrespective of the Salah being missed intentionally or unintentionally[1]. Rasullullah (Sallallahu Alaih Wassallam) advices:

من نسى صلاة فليصل إذا ذكرها لا كفارة لها الا ذالك (صحيح البخاري حديث رقم 597)

Translation: “If anyone forgets a prayer he should pray that prayer when he remembers it. There is no expiation except to pray the same.” [Sahih Bukhari, Hadith No. 597]

 

إذ ارقد أحدكم عن الصلاة أو غفل عنها فليصلها إذا ذكرها فان الله عزوجل يقول: أقم الصلاة لذكرى (صحيح مسلم حديث رقم1569 )

Translation: When anyone forgets the prayer, he should observe it when he remembers it, for Allah has said: “And observe the prayer for remembrance of Me”. [Sahih Muslim, Hadith No. 1569]

 

It is clear from the above quoted Ahadeeth that it is compulsory to make up for missed Salah.

If one has to make up missed Salah while being excused in Shariah for missing out Salah unintentionally, it is obvious that he has to make up for Salah missed out deliberately to a greater extent.[2] In the battle of the trenches (Khandaq) at least three Salat’s were intentionally left out, due to being engaged in war. Rasullullah (Sallallahu Alaih Wassallam) made up for those Salah that were intentionally left out.

The famous scholar Imam Nawawi (Rahmatullah Alaih) mentions that majority of the scholars are of the opinion that Salah missed intentionally must be made up for, and those that think it is not necessary are ignorant.[3]

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Ahmed-Ur-Rahmaan ibn Mufti Mohammed Patel (Rahmatullah Alaih)

Student Darul Iftaa

Azaadville, South Africa

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

03-12-1440|05-08-2019

 


مختصر القدوري (ص: 31) [1]

باب قضاء الفوائت

ومن فاتته الصلاة قضاها إذا ذكرها وقدمها لزوما على صلاة الوقت إلا أن يخاف فوات صلاة الوقت فيقدم صلاة الوقت ثم يقضيها

 

 (1/ 485) العناية شرح الهداية

 [باب قضاء الفوائت]

لما فرغ من بيان أحكام الأداء وما يتعلق به وهو الأصل شرع في بيان أحكام القضاء وهو الخلف عنه (ومن فاتته صلاة) أو فوتها عمدا (وجب عليه قضاؤها إذا ذكرها وقدمها على فرض الوقت

 

(4/ 62)  الفتاوى الهندية

( الباب الحادي عشر في قضاء الفوائت ) كل صلاة فاتت عن الوقت بعد وجوبها فيه يلزمه قضاؤها سواء ترك عمدا أو سهوا أو بسبب نوم وسواء كانت الفوائت كثيرة أو قليلة

 

 (4/ 231) الكواكب الدراري في شرح صحيح البخاري [2]

 (من نسى) فاز قلت انتفاء الشرط يستلزم انتفاء المشروط فيلزم منه أن من لم ينس لا يصلى إذا ذكر لكن القضاء واجب على التارك عمدا أيضا. قلت قيد فى الحديث بالنسيان لخروجه على الغالب أو لأنه مما ورد على السبب الخاص مثل أن يكون ثمة سائل عن حكم قضاء الصلاة المنسية أو أنه إذا وجب القضاء على المعذور فغيره أولى بالوجوب وهو من باب التنبيه بالأدنى على الأعلى وشرط اعتبار مفهوم المخالفة عدم الخروج مخرج الغالب وعدم وروده على السبب الخاص وعدم مفهوم الموافق وقال الظاهرية لا يجب قضاء الفائتة بغير عذر قالوا إنها أعظم من أن تخرج عن وبال معصيتها بالقضاء

 

 (5/ 183) شرح النووي على مسلم [3]

وَشَذَّ بَعْضُ أَهْلِ الظَّاهِرِ فَقَالَ لَا يَجِبُ قَضَاءُ الْفَائِتَةِ بِغَيْرِ عُذْرٍ وَزَعَمَ أَنَّهَا أَعْظَمُ مِنْ أَنْ يَخْرُجَ مِنْ وَبَالِ مَعْصِيَتِهَا بِالْقَضَاءِ وَهَذَا خَطَأٌ مِنْ قَائِلِهِ وَجَهَالَةٌ

 

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