Category: Miscellaneous
Fatwa#: 39454
Asked Country: India

Answered Date: Nov 09,2017

Title: Who is an Aalime Rabbani?

Question

What are the criteria for a real Alim? What an ordinary Muslim should do in order to recognize which alim is alim-e-rabbani? I see many people who get deceived by the eloquence and the speeches of the scholars, although those scholars might go against shariah. They set the criteria that so and so alim is famous, his speeches are good or he looks very innocent. 

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh. 

Allah Ta’āla mentions in the Holy Qur’aan,

إِنَّمَا يَخْشَى اللَّهَ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ الْعُلَمَاءُ [فاطر: 28]

Only those amongst His servants who possess knowledge fear Allah. 

Who is an Aalim?

In Explaining this verse, Hazrat Hassan Basri Rahimahullah mentioned:

الْعَالِمُ مَن خَشِيَ الرَّحْمَنَ بِالْغَيْبِ، وَرَغِبَ فِيمَا رَغِبَ اللَّهُ فِيهِ،

An Alim is a person who fears Allah in private and in public, and likes what Allah likes him to do, and hates what is detestable in the sight of Allah1

Hazrat Rabi ibn Anas Rahimahullah mentioned,

مَنْ لَمْ يَخْشَ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى فَلَيْسَ بِعَالِمٍ 

Whoever does not fear Allah is not considered as a (true) Alim. 2 

Ahmad Ibn Salih al-Misri Rahimahullah mentioned:

أَنَّ الْخَشْيَةَ لَا تُدْرَكُ بِكَثْرَةِ الرِّوَايَةِ، وَأَمَّا الْعِلْمُ الَّذِي فَرَضَ  اللَّهُ، عَزَّ وَجَلَّ،

Fear of Allah cannot be recognized on the basis of someone's prolific reporting of events or abundance of knowledge, in fact,it is identified through one's adherence to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of the Prophet. 3 

Hazrat Abdullah ibn Masood Radhiallahu Anhu mentioned. 

لَيْسَ الْعِلْمُ بِكَثْرَةِ الْحَدِيثِ وَلَكِنَّ الْعِلْمَ بِالْخَشْيَةِ

Memorizing or knowing many Ahadith (or, talking a lot) is no 'Ilm (knowledge). Instead, (real) knowledge comes when one has the awe and fear of Allah with it. 4 

Mulla Ali Qari Rahimahullah records a statement of Hazrat Hassan Basri Rahimahullah in his magnum opus Mirqaat,

إِنَّمَا الْفَقِيهُ الزَّاهِدُ فِي الدُّنْيَا، الرَّاغِبُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ، الْبَصِيرُ بِأَمْرِ دِينِهِ، الْمُدَاوِمُ عَلَى عِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ،

A faqīh is one who is abstinent in this world, desirous of the Hereafter, fully watchful with regard to his Dīnī matters, and constant in his worship of Allāh.   5 

Khashiyat is the outstanding feature of an Aalime Rabbani. However, it is an internal quality and a condition of the heart. We should appreciate those Ulama who are eloquent in their speeches and sacrifice their time and comfort to educate the Ummah. Their sacrifices could also be an expression of their khashiyat of Allah and concern for the Ummah in their hearts.

Furthermore, it is our belief that no person, irrespective of who is, an Aalim, Mufti or Shaikh is not sinless. We are advised to focus on our shortcomings rather than the shortcomings of others.

We advise you to read the following book by Hazrat Moulana Saleem Dhorat Saheb titled, who is an Aalime Rabbani?http://www.alqamarpublications.com/images/English_Books/Aalim-e-Rabbani-new_edition.pdf

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Huzaifah Deedat

Student Darul Iftaa
Lusaka, Zambia

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

_________________

1-     Ma’ariful-Quran by Mufti Muhammad Shafee Saheb Rahimahullah (English Translation) Volume 7-Page 339 – Maktabah Darul Uloom Karachi)

تفسير ابن كثير - دار طيبة للنشر والتوزيع (6/ 545)

وَقَالَ الْحَسَنُ الْبَصْرِيُّ: الْعَالِمُ مَن خَشِيَ الرَّحْمَنَ بِالْغَيْبِ، وَرَغِبَ فِيمَا رَغِبَ اللَّهُ فِيهِ، وَزَهِدَ فِيمَا سَخط اللَّهُ فِيهِ، ثُمَّ تَلَا الْحَسَنُ: {إِنَّمَا يَخْشَى اللَّهَ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ الْعُلَمَاءُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ غَفُورٌ}

تفسير القرطبي- دار الكتب المصرية (14/ 343) 2

هُنَا تَمَامُ الْكَلَامِ، أَيْ كَذَلِكَ تَخْتَلِفُ أَحْوَالُ العباد في الخشية، ثم استأنف فقال: (إِنَّما يَخْشَى اللَّهَ مِنْ عِبادِهِ الْعُلَماءُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ غَفُورٌ) يَعْنِي بِالْعُلَمَاءِ الَّذِينَ يَخَافُونَ قُدْرَتَهُ، فَمَنْ عَلِمَ أَنَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ قَدِيرٌ أَيْقَنَ بِمُعَاقَبَتِهِ عَلَى الْمَعْصِيَةِ، كَمَا رَوَى عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَلْحَةَ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ" إِنَّما يَخْشَى اللَّهَ مِنْ عِبادِهِ الْعُلَماءُ" قَالَ: الَّذِينَ عَلِمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ على كل شي قَدِيرٌ. وَقَالَ الرَّبِيعُ بْنُ أَنَسٍ: مَنْ لَمْ يَخْشَ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى فَلَيْسَ بِعَالِمٍ. وَقَالَ مُجَاهِدٌ: إِنَّمَا الْعَالِمُ مَنْ خَشِيَ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ. وَعَنِ ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ: كَفَى بِخَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى علما وبالاغترار جهلا. وقيل لسعد ابن إِبْرَاهِيمَ: مَنْ أَفْقَهُ أَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ؟ قَالَ أَتْقَاهُمْ لِرَبِّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ. وَعَنْ مُجَاهِدٍ قَالَ: إِنَّمَا الْفَقِيهُ مَنْ يَخَافُ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ. وَعَنْ عَلِيٍّ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ: إِنَّ الْفَقِيهَ حق الفقيه من لم يقنط

 

تفسير ابن كثير - دار طيبة للنشر والتوزيع (6/ 545) 3

وَقَالَ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ صَالِحٍ الْمِصْرِيُّ، عَنِ ابْنِ وَهْبٍ، عَنْ مَالِكٍ قَالَ: إِنَّ الْعِلْمَ لَيْسَ بِكَثْرَةِ الرِّوَايَةِ، وَإِنَّمَا الْعِلْمُ نُورٌ يَجْعَلُهُ اللَّهُ فِي الْقَلْبِ.

قَالَ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ صَالِحٍ الْمِصْرِيُّ: مَعْنَاهُ: أَنَّ الْخَشْيَةَ لَا تُدْرَكُ بِكَثْرَةِ الرِّوَايَةِ، وَأَمَّا الْعِلْمُ الَّذِي فَرَضَ  اللَّهُ، عَزَّ وَجَلَّ، أَنْ يُتَّبَعَ فَإِنَّمَا هُوَ الْكِتَابُ وَالسُّنَّةُ، وَمَا جَاءَ عَنِ الصَّحَابَةِ، رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ، وَمَنْ بَعْدَهُمْ مِنْ أَئِمَّةِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ، فَهَذَا لَا يُدْرَكُ إِلَّا بِالرِّوَايَةِ وَيَكُونُ تَأْوِيلُ قَوْلِهِ: "نُورٌ" يُرِيدُ بِهِ فَهْمَ الْعِلْمِ، وَمَعْرِفَةَ مَعَانِيهِ

 

  المدخل إلى السنن الكبرى للبيهقي (ص: 314)- دار الخلفاء للكتاب الإسلامي4

أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو مُحَمَّدِ بْنُ فِرَاسٍ، أبنا أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنُ الضَّحَّاكِ، ثنا عَلِيُّ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ، ثنا مُسْلِمُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، ثنا قُرَّةُ وَهُوَ ابْنُ خَالِدٍ، ثنا عَوْنٌ، قَالَ: قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مَسْعُودٍ: لَيْسَ الْعِلْمُ بِكَثْرَةِ الْحَدِيثِ وَلَكِنَّ الْعِلْمَ بِالْخَشْيَةِ

 

مرقاة المفاتيح شرح مشكاة المصابيح- دار الفكر (1/ 283) 5

(قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ (مَنْ يُرِدِ اللَّهُ بِهِ خَيْرًا) : تَنْكِيرُهُ لِلتَّفْخِيمِ أَيْ خَيْرًا كَثِيرًا " (يُفَقِّهْهُ) : بِتَشْدِيدِ الْقَافِ أَيْ: يَجْعَلْهُ عَالِمًا (فِي الدِّينِ) أَيْ: أَحْكَامِ الشَّرِيعَةِ وَالطَّرِيقَةِ وَالْحَقِيقَةِ، وَلَا يُخَصُّ بِالْفِقْهِ الْمُصْطَلِحِ الْمُخْتَصِّ بِالْأَحْكَامِ الشَّرْعِيَّةِ الْعِلْمِيَّةِ كَمَا ظُنَّ، فَقَدْ رَوَى الدَّارِمِيُّ عَنْ عِمْرَانَ قَالَ: قُلْتُ لِلْحَسَنِ يَوْمًا فِي شَيْءٍ قَالَهُ، يَا أَبَا سَعِيدٍ! هَكَذَا يَقُولُ الْفُقَهَاءُ. قَالَ: وَيْحَكَ هَلْ رَأَيْتَ فَقِيهًا قَطُّ إِنَّمَا الْفَقِيهُ الزَّاهِدُ فِي الدُّنْيَا، الرَّاغِبُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ، الْبَصِيرُ بِأَمْرِ دِينِهِ، الْمُدَاوِمُ عَلَى عِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ، وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ: إِنَّمَا الْفَقِيهُ مَنِ انْفَقَأَتْ عَيْنَا قَلْبِهِ فَنَظَرَ إِلَى رَبِّهِ اهـ.

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