Category: Marriage (Nikah)
Fatwa#: 39044
Asked Country: United States

Answered Date: Oct 02,2017

Title: Envelope as mahr

Question

As Salaamu Alaykum 

Respected Mufti Saheb 

I would like to know if a person says the following is he in nikaah :

I suppose to have a ring but all I have is the envelope. I'm giving you this envelope as mahr, do you accept?

She replied: I have accepted 

There were two women and one man present. The entire purpose of this gathering was so that those involved could be married. There was a substantial amount of money in the envelope. 

Was Salaam 

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, The Most Merciful.

As-salaamu `alaykum wa-ramatullahi wa-barakatuh.

A Nikaah is established through a proposal (Iijaab) from one party, either the boy or the girl and acceptance (Qubool) from the other party with the express words of Nikaah in the past tense or present tense. For example, the boy says, I have made Nikaah with you or I am making Nikaah with you and the girl says, I have accepted the nikaah with you or I am accepting the Nikaah with you. This proposal (Iejaab) and acceptance (Qabool) must also be in the presence of two adult muslim males or one adult muslim male and two adult muslim females, who understand that a Nikaah is taking place. In the enquired situation, the condition for the validity of Nikaah is not fulfilled. There is no mention of Nikaah at all. The mere exchanging of Mahr does not constitute a Nikaah.[1]

 

And Allah Ta`ala Knows Best.

Hussein Muhammad.

Student Darul Iftaa

Tanzania

Checked and Approved by:

Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

 



[1]

مختصر القدوري (ص: 145)

النكاح ينعقد بالإيجاب والقبول بلفظين يعبر بهما عن الماضي أو يعبر بأحدهما عن الماضي وبالآخر عن المستقبل مثل أن يقول: زوجتي فيقول زوجتك

 

تحفة الفقهاء (2/ 118)

أما رُكْنه فَهُوَ الْإِيجَاب وَالْقَبُول من الزَّوْجَيْنِ وهما لفظان يعبر بهما عَن الْمَاضِي أَو يعبر بِأَحَدِهِمَا عَن الْمَاضِي وَالْآخر عَن الْمُسْتَقْبل وَفِي البيع لَا يَصح مَا لم يكن اللفظان يعبر بهما عَن الْمَاضِي على مَا ذكرنَا فِي الْبيُوع

ثمَّ لَا خلاف بَين الْعلمَاء بِأَن النِّكَاح ينْعَقد بِلَفْظ التَّزْوِيج وَالنِّكَاح

 

بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (2/ 255)

وَمِنْهَا سَمَاعُ الشَّاهِدَيْنِ كَلَامَ الْمُتَعَاقِدَيْنِ جَمِيعًا حَتَّى لَوْ سَمِعَا كَلَامَ أَحَدِهِمَا دُونَ الْآخَرِ أَوْ سَمِعَ أَحَدُهُمَا كَلَامَ أَحَدِهِمَا وَالْآخَرُ كَلَامَ الْآخَرِ لَا يَجُوزُ النِّكَاحُ؛ لِأَنَّ الشَّهَادَةَ أَعْنِي حُضُورَ الشُّهُودِ شَرْطُ رُكْنِ الْعَقْدِ، وَرُكْنُ الْعَقْدِ هُوَ الْإِيجَابُ وَالْقَبُولُ فِيمَا لَمْ يَسْمَعَا كَلَامَهُمَا لَا تَتَحَقَّقُ الشَّهَادَةُ عَنْ الرُّكْنِ فَلَا يُوجَدُ شَرْطُ الرُّكْنِ - وَاَللَّهُ أَعْلَم

 

Aap ke masa`il or un ka hal. Vol 5, Pg 31.

Fataawa Mahmudiyya, Vol 10, Pg 469, Farooqiyya.

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