Category: Charity, Obligatory (Zakaat)
Fatwa#: 38509
Asked Country: Germany

Answered Date: Jun 09,2017

Title: What are most rewarding categories among deserving recipients of Zakat and if one's wealth fluctuates or is used up during the year is Zakat obligatory?

Question

A person for the first time 1 shabaan has nisaab of zakaat. After three months he uses the money after three months rabi ul akir he has nisaab again until shabaan.does he discharge zakaat on shabaan Or must he wait until rabil Ul akhir.

Please advise

Perhaps I may ask on Zakaat disposal

What is the best way to give zakaat

Long term education , religious ,secular so that can eventually be self sustaining for daily need etc

Clothing

Food

Money

Give individually

Or through an organization?

Widows

Etc maybe you can further enlighten us

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

1.) As long as one possesses the amount of nisab at the beginning and at the end of the year he will have to give Zakat. This means that if the total amount of his wealth decreases during the course of the year but he still ends up having the amount of nisab at the end of the year he will still have to give Zakat.

However, instead of experiencing a decrease, if the person in question used up or lost his entire wealth and then regained it later, then the year will be calculated from the time he regained the amount of nisab.

Based on the above, if the person had the amount of nisab on the 1st of Sha'ban and after a decrease during the year, regained his wealth and had the amount of nisab at the end of the year, he is obligated to give Zakat on the 1st of Sha'ban.

However, if the person had the amount of nisab on the 1st of Sha'ban but it was all used up at any point during the year and then he regained the amount of nisab at a later date (e.g. 1st of Muharram), then he will not give Zakat on the following 1st of Sha'ban since it is necessary to possess at least some portion of the nisab for the entire duration of one lunar year.

In this case, he will calculate Zakat one lunar year from the day he regained the amount of nisab (e.g. 1st of Muharram), if he still possesses the amount of nisab on that day. [i][ii][iii][iv][v]

2.) Deserving recipients of Zakat need to be made owners of the Zakat funds regardless of whether they are paid in money or in-kind (i.e. food, medicine, clothing, etc.). Between these two, it will better to give whatever is more beneficial for the deserving recipient since a major aspect of discharging Zakat is to fulfill the need of the deserving recipient. [vi][vii][viii]

As for giving Zakat funds to organizations, if it is a reliable organization that keeps Zakat funds separate from other donations and follows correct and sound Zakat distribution procedures, then one can give to such organizations.

The most rewarding categories among deserving recipients of Zakat are:

a.) One's own deserving relatives [starting with the closest – but – with the exception of parents and ascending (grandparents, etc), children and descending (grandchildren, etc) and one's own spouse as Zakat cannot be given to these relatives].
b.) Deserving students and scholars of sacred knowledge [ilm].

In the case of both these categories, one gets double the reward. Giving to deserving relatives leads to upholding ties of kinship [silah al-rahm] in addition to discharging the obligation of Zakat – hence double the reward.

Likewise, giving to deserving students and scholars of sacred knowledge is serving the deen in addition to discharging the obligation of Zakat – hence double the reward.

However, if one's deserving relatives are involved in committing sins and wrongdoing and by giving them Zakat it is feared that they will spend it in sinful avenues, then by giving them Zakat, one will not get double the reward. Rather, it will be better than to give it to deserving students of knowledge/religious scholars or other deserving pious individuals in comparison to them. [ix][x][xi][xii][xiii]

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best,

Mufti Sohail ibn Arif,
Assistant Mufti, Darul Iftaa
Chicago, USA

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

وإذا كان النصاب كاملا في طرفي الحول فنقصانه فيما بين ذلك لا يسقط الزكاة كذا في الهداية [i]

الفتاوى الهندية، ١/ ١٧٥

قال) ولو أن رجلا له مائتا درهم فضاع نصفها قبل كمال الحول بيوم ثم أفاد مائة فتم الحول وعنده مائتا درهم) [ii]

 فعليه  الزكاة؛ لأن المعتبر كمال النصاب في آخر الحول مع بقاء شيء منه في خلال الحول...تلزمه الزكاة إذا تم الحول لوجود كمال النصاب في طرفي الحول مع بقاء شيء منه في خلال الحول

المبسوط للسرخسي ٣/ ٢٩ و٤٢

وإذا كان النصاب كاملا في طرفي الحول فنقصانه فيما بين ذلك لا يسقط الزكاة) لأنه يشق اعتبار الكمال في) [iii]

 أثنائه أو ما لا بد منه في ابتدائه للانعقاد وتحقق الغنى وفي انتهائه للوجوب، ولا كذلك فيما بين ذلك لأنه حالة البقاء، بخلاف ما لو هلك الكل حيث يبطل حكم الحول

وقوله (وإذا كان النصاب كاملا في طرفي الحول فنقصانه فيما بين ذلك لا يسقط الزكاة) قيد بالنقصان احترازا عن الهلاك، فإن هلاك كل النصاب يقطع الحول بالاتفاق

العناية شرح الهداية، ٢/ ٢١٩ - ٢٢٠

بهشتى زيور تيسرا حصة ص ٢٣  تعميرى كتب خانة [iv]

كتاب النوازل ٦/ ٤٢٧ - ٤٢٨ [v]

فتاوى محمودية، ٩/ ٤٦٩ [vi]

فتاوى قاسمية ١٠/ ٥٠١ [vii]

فتاوى رحيمية، ٧/ ١٤٩ [viii]

و) كره (نقلها إلا إلى قرابة) بل في الظهيرية لا تقبل صدقة الرجل وقرابته محاويج حتى يبدأ بهم فيسد)  [ix]

حاجتهم (أو أحوج) أو أصلح أو أورع أو أنفع للمسلمين (أو من دار الحرب إلى دار الإسلام أو إلى طالب علم) وفي المعراج التصدق على العالم الفقير أفضل (أو إلى الزهاد أو كانت معجلة) قبل تمام الحول فلا يكره خلاصة

 (قوله: أفضل) أي من الجاهل الفقير قهستاني

 رد المحتار، ٢/ ٣٥٣ - ٣٥٤

وكره نقلها بعد تمام الحول لبلد آخر لغير قريب وأحوج وأروع وأنفع للمسلمين بتعليم. والأفضل صرفها [x]

 للأقرب فالأقرب من كل ذي رحم محرم منه ثم لجيرانه ثم لأهل محلته ثم لأهل حرفته ثم لأهل بلدته

قوله: "وأنفع للمسلمين بتعليم" قال في المعراج التصدق على العالم الفقير أفضل اهـ أي من الجاهل الفقير قهستاني ولا يكره نقلها من دار الحرب إلى دار الإسلام أي ولو مع وجود المصرف هناك قوله: "والأفضل صرفها للأقرب فالأقرب الخ" قال في النهر والأولى صرفها إلى أخوته الفقراء ثم أولادهم ثم أعمامه الفقراء ثم أخواله ثم ذوي الأرحام ثم جيرانه ثم أهل سكنه ثم أهل ربضه اهـ

حاشية الطحطاوي على مراقي الفلاح، ١/ ٧٢٢

التصدق على الفقير العالم أفضل من التصدق على الجاهل كذا في الزاهدي [xi]

الفتاوى الهندية، ١/ ١٨٧

كتاب النوازل، ٧/ ٤٦ - ٤٧[xii]

 فتاوى قاسمية، ١٠/ ٥٨٣ - ٥٨٥  و ٦٠٤ - ٦٠٥  و ٦٠٧ – ٦٠٨ [xiii]

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