Category: Food & Drink
Fatwa#: 38214
Asked Country: Virgin Islands

Answered Date: Apr 27,2017

Title: The Islamic perspective of smoking cannabis/medical marijuana etc.

Question

Aslkm.if a Muslim individual has a psychiatric problem of depression/anxiety, is it allowed to smoke cannabis if it is therapeutic for him.instead of swallowing stronger psychiatric medication? Please advise

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

 

In principle, Shari’ah prohibits any substance which causes intoxication. This ruling is derived from the following Hadith:

كُلُّ مُسْكِرٍ حَرَامٌ 

Translation: Hadhrat Abu Musa al-Ash’ari (Radhiyallahu Anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (ﷺ) said: "All intoxicants are prohibited."(Bukhari & Muslim)[1]

Furthermore, Shari’ah prohibits harming oneself. This principle is derived from the following Ayah:

ولا تلقوا بأيديكم إلى التهلكة 

Translation: ‘And do not throw yourself into destruction.’ (Surah al-Baqarah – Ayah: 195)[2]

Thus, the act of smoking itself, irrespective of the substance being smoked, is impermissible due to the injurious effect smoking has on one’s being.[3]

The ruling of prohibition of cannabis rests on the above-mentioned principles. Thus, the smoking or consumption of any sort of the common and readily available forms of cannabis, and synthetic, imitation cannabis is prohibited due to it being an intoxicant.[4]

However, certain strains of cannabis (High-CBD and very low to zero levels of THC) are void of the property that causes intoxication (THC). [5][6]

If one is suffering from depression, anxiety etc., one should attempt to overcome his affliction firstly by going clean (i.e. not using any medication). If this proves to be unsuccessful, then one may take aid from cannabis that have zero levels of intoxication only through ingestion or application and not through smoking.

Furthermore, smoking cannabis is popularly and accurately labeled ‘the gateway drug’ due to its users developing habits and tendencies to search for a greater ‘high’, leading them to smoking stronger strains of cannabis (containing high levels of THC) and experimenting with other dangerous drugs that intoxicate. Thus, one ‘hit’ potentially results in drug abuse.

One should also endeavor to refrain from psychiatric prescriptions which have addictive properties.[7]

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Abdullah ibn Mohammed Aijaz

Student Darul Iftaa
Baltimore, USA

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

 



صحيح مسلم (3/ 1586) [1] 

وحَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، وَإِسْحَاقُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، وَاللَّفْظُ لِقُتَيْبَةَ، قَالَا: حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ، عَنْ شُعْبَةَ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ أَبِي بُرْدَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ أَبِي مُوسَى، قَالَ: بَعَثَنِي النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنَا وَمُعَاذَ بْنَ جَبَلٍ إِلَى الْيَمَنِ، فَقُلْتُ: يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ، إِنَّ شَرَابًا يُصْنَعُ بِأَرْضِنَا يُقَالُ لَهُ الْمِزْرُ مِنَ الشَّعِيرِ، وَشَرَابٌ يُقَالُ لَهُ الْبِتْعُ مِنَ الْعَسَلِ، فَقَالَ: «كُلُّ مُسْكِرٍ حَرَامٌ» 

صحيح البخاري (5/ 161)

حَدَّثَنِي إِسْحَاقُ، حَدَّثَنَا خَالِدٌ، عَنِ الشَّيْبَانِيِّ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ أَبِي بُرْدَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ أَبِي مُوسَى الأَشْعَرِيِّ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بَعَثَهُ إِلَى اليَمَنِ، فَسَأَلَهُ عَنْ أَشْرِبَةٍ تُصْنَعُ بِهَا، فَقَالَ: «وَمَا هِيَ؟» قَالَ: البِتْعُ وَالمِزْرُ، فَقُلْتُ لِأَبِي بُرْدَةَ: مَا البِتْعُ؟ قَالَ: نَبِيذُ العَسَلِ، وَالمِزْرُ نَبِيذُ الشَّعِيرِ، فَقَالَ: «كُلُّ مُسْكِرٍ حَرَامٌ» رَوَاهُ جَرِيرٌ، وَعَبْدُ الوَاحِدِ، عَنِ الشَّيْبَانِيِّ، عَنْ أَبِي بُرْدَةَ

 

المبسوط للسرخسي (30/ 265) [2] 

(قال: فإن تركوا الأكل والشرب، فقد عصوا؛ لأن فيه تلفا) يعني أن النفس لما كانت لا تبقى عادة بدون الأكل والشرب فالممتنع من ذلك قاتل نفسه قال الله تعالى {ولا تقتلوا أنفسكم} [النساء: 29]، وهو معرض نفسه للهلاك وقال الله تعالى {ولا تلقوا بأيديكم إلى التهلكة} [البقرة: 195] وبعد التناول، فقدر ما يسد به رمقه يندب إلى أن يتناول مقدار ما يتقوى به على الطاعة؛ لأنه إن لم يتناول يضعف وربما يعجز عن الطاعة وقال - صلى الله عليه وسلم - «المؤمن القوي أحب إلى الله من المؤمن الضعيف، وفي كل خير»

[3] https://healthyhempoil.com/smoking-cbd-oil/

Smoking anything can be harsh on the throat and lungs….

الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (6/ 457) [4] 

(ويحرم أكل البنج والحشيشة)

•---------------------------------•

[رد المحتار]

(قوله ويحرم أكل البنج) هو بالفتح: نبات يسمى في العربية شيكران، يصدع ويسبت ويخلط العقل كما في التذكرة للشيخ داود. وزاد في القاموس: وأخبثه الأحمر ثم الأسود وأسلمه الأبيض، وفيه: السبت يوم الأسبوع، والرجل الكثير النوم، والمسبت: الذي لا يتحرك. وفي القهستاني: هو أحد نوعي شجر القنب، حرام لأنه يزيل العقل، وعليه الفتوى، بخلاف نوع آخر منه فإنه مباح كالأفيون لأنه وإن اختل العقل به لا يزول، وعليه يحمل ما في الهداية وغيرها من إباحة البنج كما في شرح اللباب اهـ.

أقول: هذا غير ظاهر، لأن ما يخل العقل لا يجوز أيضا بلا شبهة فكيف يقال إنه مباح: بل الصواب أن مراد صاحب الهداية وغيره إباحة قليله للتداوي ونحوه ومن صرح بحرمته أراد به القدر المسكر منه، يدل عليه ما في غاية البيان عن شرح شيخ الإسلام: أكل قليل السقمونيا والبنج مباح للتداوي، ما زاد على ذلك إذا كان يقتل أو يذهب العقل حرام اهـ فهذا صريح فيما قلناه مؤيد لما سبق بحثناه من تخصيص ما مر من أن ما أسكر كثيره حرم قليله بالمائعات، وهكذا يقول في غيره من الأشياء الجامدة المضرة في العقل أو غيره، يحرم تناول القدر المضر منها دون القليل النافع، لأن حرمتها ليست لعينها بل لضررها. وفي أول طلاق البحر: من غاب عقله بالبنج والأفيون يقع طلاقه إذا استعمله للهو وإدخال الآفات قصدا لكونه معصية، وإن كان للتداوي فلا لعدمها، كذا في فتح القدير، وهو صريح في حرمة البنج والأفيون لا للدواء. وفي البزازية: والتعليل ينادي بحرمته لا للدواء اهـ كلام البحر. وجعل في النهر هذا التفصيل هو الحق والحاصل أن استعمال الكثير المسكر منه حرام مطلقا كما يدل عليه كلام الغاية. وأما القليل، فإن كان للهو حرام، وإن سكر منه يقع طلاقه لأن مبدأ استعماله كان محظورا، وإن كان للتداوي وحصل منه إسكار فلا، فاغتنم هذا التحرير المفرد.

التجريد للقدوري (10/ 4932)

احتج أبو الحسن: أن زوال العقل بشرب الشراب كزواله بشرب البنج فإن لم يقع الطلاق في أحد الموضعين كذلك الآخر 

والجواب: أن شرب البنج في العادة لا يقع على وجه المعصية، وإنما يقع على وجه التداوي، ثم يفضي (إلى زوال العقل، فلم يعاقب ببقية التكليف.

وإذا زال التكليف، لم يقع الطلاق، وليس كذلك شرب النبيذ- لأنه يقع في الغالب على وجه المعصية، فعوقب ببقاء التكليف في حقه، فوقع طلاقه.

فإن قيل: إذا شرب البنج على وجه المعصية، ينبغي أن يقع طلاقه.

قلنا: الغالب من أمر الناس، أنهم يشربون البنج لغير المعصية، والحكم يتعلق بالغالب، ولأن العادة أن الأنسان يشرب البنج ويتظاهر زوال العقل، وهو يعقل، فلذلك لم يحكم بطلاقه، وفي العادة أن الإنسان يشرب الشراب، ويظهر السكر، وعقله ثابت، فعوقب بإيقاع الطلاق للتهمة.

التنبيه على مشكلات الهداية (4/ 176)

قوله: (لأن السكر من المباح لا يوجب الحد كالبنج ولبن الرماك).

في كلامه نظر من وجوه:

أحدها: في إباحة تناول ما يغيب العقل، فإن تغييب العقل حرام سواء كان البنج أو بغيره، فلا ينبغي أن يقال بإباحة قدر ما يغيب معه العقل، وفي كلامه [ما يوهم ذلك وهذا كما أن الأكل إلى الشبع مباح والزيادة عليه حرام لما فيه من الضرر، ولأنه قد يغيب] العقل بسبب زيادة الأكل على الشبع فيحرم، فكذا تناول قدر ما يغيب به العقل من البنج ونحوه.

قال السغناقي: فجعل السكر من البنج من المباح مخالف لرواية الجامع الصغير للإمام المحبوبي فإنه ذكر فيه عن أبي حنيفة أنه قال: من زال عقله بالبنج إن علم أنه بنج حين أكله يقع طلاقه وعتاقه وإن لم يعلم لا يقع.

الثاني: في تسمية غيبة العقل بسبب أكل البنج سكرًا، فإنه لا يحصل به نشوة ولا طرب ولا لذة ولذلك لا يحد آكلها لأنه ليس في الطبع ما يدعو إليها فلا يحتاج فيها إلى شرع الزاجر بخلاف الحشيشة فإنها يحصل بها ذلك، فكان في الطبع ما يدعو إليها، فلهذا كان القول الصحيح هو القول بحرمتها والحد بأكل القليل منها كما في عصير العنب لدخولها في قوله -صلى الله عليه وسلم -: "كل مسكر حرام" وسيأتي لذلك زيادة بيان في الأشربة إن شاء الله تعالى، بخلاف البنج، فإن غيبة العقل بسبب أكله بمنزلة الإغماء أو البرسام أو ما يحصل للمحموم من الهذيان والهوس وفساد الذهن ونحو ذلك، وكذلك بغير الحمى من الأمراض التي تتعلق بالدماغ فيحصل منها غيبة الدماغ أو سوء المزاج وليس ذلك بسكر.

[5]

 

Cannabis, marijuana etc.

Cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are the two main ingredients in the marijuana plant (cannabis sativa). Both CBD and THC belong to a unique class of compounds known as cannabinoids.

While many strains of marijuana are known for having abundant levels of THC, high-CBD strains are less common. But CBD has recently started to draw attention from the medical community, who seem to prefer CBD over THC. Here, we explain the differences between these two compounds.

 

1) The High

THC is probably best known for being the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana. CBD, however, is non-psychoactive. In other words, CBD can’t get you high. While disappointing to recreational users, this unique feature of CBD is what makes it so appealing as a medicine.

Doctors usually prefer treatments with minimal side effects, which has been a major barrier to the acceptance of medical marijuana. Likewise, CBD has been used to treat younger children with various ailments.

2) Anxiety

THC is known to cause some people to feel anxious or paranoid. But CBD is believed to have the opposite effect. In fact, studies show that CBD works to counteract the anxiety caused by ingesting THC. A number of studies also suggest that CBD can reduce anxiety when administered on its own.

3) Antipsychotic

In addition to being non-psychoactive, CBD seems to have antipsychotic properties. Researchers believe that CBD may protect marijuana users from getting too high by reducing the psychosis-like effects of THC. However, regulating the mind-altering activity of THC isn’t all that CBD is good for. On its own, CBD is being tested as an antipsychotic medicine for people with schizophrenia.

4) Sleep

One of the most common uses of marijuana is as a sleep aid. THC is believed to be responsible for most of marijuana’s sleep-inducing effects. On the other hand, studies suggest CBD acts to promote wakefulness, making CBD a poor choice as a sleep medicine. The opposite effects of CBD and THC on sleep may explain why some strains of cannabis cause users to feel drowsy while others are known to boost energy.

5) Legal Status

While most countries have strict laws surrounding marijuana and THC, the legal status of CBD is less clear. In the United States, CBD is technically illegal since it is classified as a Schedule I drug under federal law. A pharmaceutical form of CBD, called Epidiolex, was only recently cleared by the FDA to be tested in children with severe epilepsy.

On the other hand, CBD is found in hemp, which can be legally imported and sold in the U.S. Some companies have taken advantage of this loophole by importing high-CBD hemp extracts from other countries where hemp is produced.

 

Furthermore, the best alternative would be hemp products as they contain no THC.

http://herb.co/2016/10/03/high-cbd-low-thc-strain/

https://drugs-forum.com/ams/ibogaine-can-a-hallucinogen-from-africa-cure-addiction.17233/ \

https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/a-powerful-new-form-of-medical-marijuana-without-the-high/2016/12/29/81bbf7c0-b5b2-11e6-b8df-600bd9d38a02_story.html?utm_term=.9409676452b2

http://www.leafscience.com/2014/9/16/5-differences-hemp-marijuana/?utm_source=mantis&utm_medium=recommend&utm_campaign=mantis&muuid=a32eb8f4XXX369fXXX42d5XXXb45cXXX6e0ac42e2525

http://www.leafscience.com/2014/09/24/5-differences-cbd-thc/

http://healthland.time.com/2012/06/04/a-new-marijuana-plant-without-the-high-it-could-be-good-medicine/

 

[6] https://healthyhempoil.com/smoking-cbd-oil/

One may ingest CBD oil via tinctures or edibles containing CBD oil. One may also apply creams containing CBD. If one is using the plant itself, it may be ingested, rubbed, or soaked in water etc.

[7] Dr. Anwar Jeewa was consulted for this answer.

He is also preparing to introduce an anti-depressant into the mainstream market. He may be contacted at docjeewa@gmail.com  

 

Unravelling the confusion over dagga

  • Sunday Tribune
  • 23 Apr 2017

 

ON MARCH 31, the Western Cape High Court gave the green light to the private use of dagga (marijuana) at home. What people fail to understand is that the court ruled that the possession, cultivation and private use of marijuana should not be forbidden in homes but that the commercial production and trade in marijuana was illegal. The court also ruled that Parliament had two years to change sections of the Drug Trafficking Act and the Medicines Control Act. The Constitutional Court still has to confirm the ruling and send it to the National Assembly. Until then, private use is still illegal. Many people confuse the difference between legalisation and decriminalisation. The important difference is that decriminalisation takes away monetary penalties and jail sentences for simple possession. It doesn’t cover the use, sale or storage for which there will still be criminal penalties. The focus is less on penalisation and more on the treatment of drug use. Legalisation means you can acquire, possess and use a drug without fear of criminal prosecution. It is safer to decriminalise marijuana than legalise it, so that the necessary help can be given to people dependent on it and state resources, in the form of court time, expenses and prisons, won’t be burdened because of marijuana usage. Pro-marijuana activists use the angle of its medical benefits. Yes, it has medical benefits but we need to consider the harm – just as we see the legalisation of many prescribed medicines such as codeine, morphine, pethidine, sleeping tablets, methadone and suboxone, sold freely in pharmacies and causing dependency problems for users around the world. The addiction to prescribed medication is worse than some illegal drugs. Alcohol is a socially acceptable drug in a liquid form and is legal, but consider the devastating effect it has on society, with road accidents, the abuse of women and children and addiction arising from it. The arguments of antidrug personalities centre on the idea that legalisation or decriminalisation would lead to increased use, be of great harm to children and cause incalculable misery in families. If this is the case, why don’t we want to learn from our past experiences and not repeat the same mistakes? If we want to use marijuana for medical reasons, then pharmaceutical companies should make medical marijuana available online in the form of cannabis oil, tinctures and capsules. It is true that THC, the primary active chemical, can be useful for treating some medical problems.

Synthetic THC is the main ingredient in Marinol, an Fdaapproved medication used to control nausea in cancer chemotherapy and to stimulate appetite in people with Aids. The irony of the people promoting the legalisation of medical marijuana is that most are not using it for medical reasons but recreation. They want to smoke it all the time and live with a false sense of reality, but are not using it for medical conditions like glaucoma, asthma, to alleviate the symptoms of nausea, loss of appetite and pain, fibromyalgia or when undergoing chemotherapy. However, marijuana as a smoked product has never proven medically beneficial and is much more likely to harm one’s health; marijuana smoke is a crude THC delivery system that also sends many harmful substances into the body. As an expert on addiction, I see the devastating effects of marijuana regularly with people as young as 12 becoming dependent. The use of marijuana has adverse health, safety, social, academic, economic and behavioural consequences. Yet, astonishingly, many people view the drug as harmless. The widespread perception of marijuana as a benign natural herb seriously detracts from the most basic message our society needs to deliver. It is not okay for anyone, especially young people, to use this or any illicit drug. Marijuana became popular, mainly among the youth, in the 1960s. Many of them have become the parents and grandparents of the teenagers who now smoke marijuana, believing it is harmless.

But most of the marijuana available today is much more potent than the weed of the Woodstock era, and its users tend to be younger than those of the past generation. Today, young people live in a world vastly different from that of their parents and grandparents. Children these days are bombarded constantly with pro-drug messages in print and on screen. They also have easy access to the internet, which abounds with sites promoting the wonders of marijuana, offering kits for beating drug tests, and, in some cases, advertising pot for sale. Meanwhile, the prevalence of higher potency marijuana, like skunk, chronic, hydroponic, greenhouse, outdoor or cheese measured by the levels of the chemical delta 9 (tetrahydrocannabinol or THC) is increasing. Average THC levels rose from less than 1% in the mid-1970s to more than 6% in 2002. The more potent marijuana grown under hydroponic conditions increased to more than to 13%, with some samples containing THC levels of up to 33%. This explains why we are seeing more young people being admitted to treatment centres for addiction to marijuana compared to a few years ago and exhibiting signs such as psychosis, paranoia, depression, memory loss, distorted perception and anxiety. Pro-cannabis activists don’t want to accept that it is considered a gateway drug and claim that this is a myth, but one simple experiment will prove them wrong: go to every treatment centre in the country and ask all those admitted what their first drug was. About 95% will admit it was marijuana. Many who worry about the dangers of heroin, cat, crystal meth or cocaine are less concerned about marijuana or consider experimenting with it an adolescent rite of passage. Such attitudes have given rise to a number of myths in popular culture. Media often glamorises and shows the gratuitous use of marijuana, trivialising the risks and ignoring negative consequences. Special interest groups proclaim smoking marijuana is not only harmless but good medicine. As South African musician Ray Phiri of Stimela, said: “Who is fooling who?”

 

•Dr. Anwar Jeewa is an anti-drug activist, motivational speaker, radio presenter and owner of the Minds Alive Wellness Centre in Westville.

 

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