Fatwa: # 16590
Category: Hadith
Country: South Africa
Date: 16th April 2008

Title

Hadith - 'What belongs to the father belongs to the son'?

Question

1. please elaborate on hadis that says "what belongs to the son, belongs to the father."
2.in light to the above, what rights has a mother haver over her son's wealth.
3. if one passes a gair-mahram on street,  must one make salaam or not

Answer

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatuh

عن عمرو بن شعيب عن أبيه عن جده أن رجلا أتى النبى صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال يا رسول الله إن لى مالا وولدا وإن والدى يجتاح مالى. قال أنت ومالك لوالدك إن أولادكم من أطيب كسبكم فكلوا من كسب أولادكم -  (سنن أبى داود، مسند أحمد)

‘Amar ibn Su’ayb narrates from his father how narrates from his father, a person and said, “O Prophet of Allah, I have wealth and a child. My father is destroying my wealth.” The Prophet of Allah replied, “You and your wealth belong to your father. Your children are from the best earning of yours. Eat from the earnings of your children. (Abu Dawud, Ahmad)

عن جابر بن عبد الله أن رجلا قال يا رسول الله إن لى مالا وولدا وإن أبى يريد أن يجتاح مالى فقال أنت ومالك لأبيك (سنن ابن ماجه)

Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah (Radiyallahu 'Anhu) narrates, a person said, “O Prophet of Allah, I have wealth and a child. My father is desire destroying my wealth (by spending it).” The Prophet of Allah replied, “You and your wealth belong to your father.”(Ibn Majah)

The commentators of the abovementioned hadith explain that a person came to the Prophet of Allah (Sallalahu 'Alayhi Wasallam) and asked regarding the rights towards his father in relations to spending on his father. At times, catering for the father’s expenses becomes hard upon the son to bear. Hence, the person said my father is destroying my wealth. The Prophet of Allah (Sallalahu 'Alayhi Wasallam) replied “You and your wealth belong to your father.” Meaning, if the father is in need and does not possess enough wealth which may suffice him, he may take from the wealth of his children the amount which will fulfill his needs. If the son does not own any wealth, but is able to work, then he must work and spend from his earnings on the parents.

It does not imply that everything the son owns is belongs to the father and the father may take whatever he likes, regardless if he is in need or not. None of the scholars have taken the hadith to mean this. The wealth of the son belongs to the son. That is why zakat on the son’s wealth is compulsory only upon the son and not the father.

The hadith is regarding expenses of the parents upon the son. Just as it is compulsory for the son to provide for his father when the father does not own enough wealth, similarly it is necessary for the son to provide for his mother. If the son does not provide for the mother, she may take from the son’s wealth to the amount which will suffice her. She will be not committing any offense in taking from the son’s wealth. However, is the mother is married, the expenses will not be due upon the son, but will be upon her husband.

‘Awn al-Ma’bud (9/324) Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyya

Rad al-Muhtar (3/622) Saeed

- ( إن والدي يجتاح مالي ): بتقديم جيم وآخره حاء مهملة من الاجتياح وهو الاستئصال ، وفي بعض النسخ يحتاج بتقديم حاء مهملة وآخره جيم من الاحتياج . قال الخطابي : معناه يستأصله فيأتي عليه . ويشبه أن يكون ما ذكره السائل من اجتياح والده ماله إنما هو بسبب النفقة عليه وأن مقدار ما يحتاج إليه للنفقة عليه شيء كثير لا يسعه عفو ماله والفضل منه إلا أن يجتاح أصله ويأتي عليه ، فلم يعذره النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ولم يرخص له في ترك النفقة وقال له أنت ومالك لوالدك على معنى أنه إذا احتاج إلى مالك أخذ منك قدر الحاجة كما يأخذ من مال نفسه ، وإذا لم يكن لك مال وكان لك كسب لزمك أن تكتسب وتنفق عليه ، فإما أن يكون أراد به إباحة ماله واعتراضه حتى يجتاحه ويأتي عليه لا على هذا الوجه فلا أعلم أحدا من الفقهاء ذهب إليه والله أعلم انتهى – (عون المعبود)

- ( النفقة لأصوله ) ولو أب أمه ذخيرة ( الفقراء ) ولو قادرين على الكسب...قال ابن عابدين: ( قوله النفقة ) أشار إلى أن جميع ما وجب للمرأة وجب للأب والأم على الولد من طعام وشراب وكسوة وسكنى حتى الخادم بحر ، وقدمنا في الفروع الكلام على خادم الأب وزوجته  ( قوله لأصوله ) إلا الأم المتزوجة فإن نفقتها على الزوج كالبنت المراهقة إذا زوجها أبوها – (رد المحتار)

1. A person should not say salam to ghair mahrams. If the ghair mahram says salam first, then the reply should be said in a inaudible voice.

If the ghair mahram is an elder person for whom there is no fear of fitna, then one may greet with salam and as well as reply in an audible voice.

Rad al-Muhtar (6/369) Saeed

وفي الشرنبلالية معزيا للجوهرة : ولا يكلم الأجنبية إلا عجوزا عطست أو سلمت فيشمتها لا يرد السلام عليها وإلا لا

وفى رد المحتار: ( قوله وإلا لا ) أي وإلا تكن عجوزا بل شابة لا يشمتها ، ولا يرد السلام بلسانه قال في الخانية : وكذا الرجل مع المرأة إذا التقيا يسلم الرجل أولا ، وإذا سلمت المرأة الأجنبية على رجل إن كانت عجوزا رد الرجل عليها السلام بلسانه بصوت تسمع ، وإن كانت شابة رد عليها في نفسه ، وكذا الرجل إذا سلم على امرأة أجنبية فالجواب فيه على العكس ا هـ . وفي الذخيرة : وإذا عطس فشمتته المرأة فإن عجوزا رد عليها وإلا رد في نفسه ا هـ وكذا لو عطست هي كما في الخلاصة – (رد المحتار)

And Allah knows best

Wassalam

Ml. Ehzaz Ajmeri,
Student Darul Iftaa

Checked and Approved by:

Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Darul Iftaa

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